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Species and Distribution of Paulownia in China
Paulownia is a deciduous tree species that belongs to the Paulownia genus of Scrophulariaceae family. The paulownia species that distribute in the areas north to the Yangtze River are Paulownia elongata, P.catalpifolia and P.tomentosa, among which P.elongata grows faster and is suitable to intercropping with crops, while the other two species grow slower but have better wood quality. Paulownia species that distribute in the areas south to the Yangtze River (subtropical zone) are P.fortunei, P.australis, P.albiphloea, P.fargesii, P.kawakamii and P.taiwaniana, among which P.fortunei has the characters of fast growing and straight stem, while P.kawakamii grow slower with a poor stem from and P.fargesii can grow at the sites with elevation of 1,200-2,000 meters.
Demonstrative distribution map of Paulownia(green)
The distribution range of paulownia is extremely wide in China, with its distribution up north line from Liaoning (south to Xiongyue) to Beijing, Taiyuan, Yan'an and Pingliang, down to south line from Guangdong, Guangxi and south Yunnan, going east to Taiwan and other coastal provinces and going west to Minshan Mountain in Gansu and Gongshan Mountain in Gaoli of Yunnan, i.e., in the latitude from 20˙to 40˙N and the longitude of from 98˙to 125˙E that covers 23 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China.
The ecological conditions vary so much among the paulownia distribution areas with their annual mean temperature from 10℃ to 22℃. The best temperature range for paulownia is from 24℃ to 29℃. The lowest temperature that paulownia can resist is -20℃ for P.tomentosa,-16℃ for P.elongata and -13℃ for P.fortunei. Paulownia can adapt to wide-ranged precipitation from 500mm to 2,500 mm. The soil conditions to paulownia growth are the soil with fertile sandy loam to heavy loam with thick soil layer, loose structure and salt content less than 0.05%, pH value from 5 to 8 and underground water level below 2.5m.
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